longan_nano_rust_wsl2_platformio_setup

How to setup a development environment for rust in Win10 + WSL2 + VSCode for Longan nano GD32 Risc-V development board
version: 1.0 date: 2021-08-08 author: bestia.dev repository: GitHub

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Hashtags: #rustlang #riscv #embeddeddevelopment

Sipeed Longan nano

I just received my 2 Sipeed Longan nano development boards ordered on AliExpress. They are cute and cheap. One has even a tiny lcd display.
The Risc-V chip on the board is GD32VF103CBT6 or in short GD32V from GigaDevice. Longan nano
I always wanted to play with a Risc-V micro-processor. I think they are the future. I believe they will grow and will be used in phones, laptops and servers, not only in microcontrollers. But I hope designers will find a way to avoid malware inside the silicon. That would be a ruined future.

Rust on WSL

Usually the microcontroller is programmed in C, but I am a fan of the rust programming language and want to try it with Longan Nano.
I use VSCode in Win10, but all rust coding and building happens inside WSL2 in Debian Linux.
This combination works very well for building CLI and Wasm applications in Rust.
VSCode has a plugin Remote - WSL extension that installs a "vscode server" in Debian. Then the VSCode Win10 GUI frontend talks to the "remote" Debian WSL2 backend for all files and operations. All the files and development tools are in Debian. Only the GUI is in Windows.

Short instructions:
Install WSL2 and inside it the Debian Linux distro.
In Debian we need rust (rust programming language). Use rustup to install it, find it on their official page. Something like this:
$ curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://sh.rustup.rs | sh

Install VSCode in Win10.
Then in VSCode install the Remote - WSL extension.
I like to have this "local plugin" (in Win10) for VSCode:

and these "WSL-Debian plugins":

PlatformIO (PIO)

PlatformIO is a plugin/extension for VSCode. It allows to build and download programs to the development board right inside VSCode. Install this extension in WSL-Debian.
pio_2
Then install the platform gd32v for you Longan Nano board. Click on the extension icon (the alien face), then click on New Terminal and then type:
platformio platform install gd32v
pio_1

DFU (Device Firmware Upgrade) driver

The Nano can be simply connected with a usb-C cable to the computer for power and data communication.
Sadly we cannot use WSL2 for USB special communication. All the USB are attached natively to Win10 and we must use it exclusively on Win10. But I have a workaround ;-)
Connect your Nano to the computer with a usb-c cable.
Now the USB is used only for power. This is the "normal mode". Windows does not recognize any USB device.
If you press and hold the BOOT0 (right) button and then press shortly the RESET (left) button and then release the BOOT0 button, you will put the Longan Nano in "DFU mode". Now the Longan nano is communicating with the computer over usb. This special mode is used to upgrade the firmware and it is a official USB standard. You will need to do this every time you want to upgrade the firmware and that is super often in development. Get comfortable with these super tiny buttons ;-)

In the moment Longan Nano enters the "DFU mode" Win10 will recognize a new USB device and usually make a sound. Open the Device Manager: click on Start and type manage, this will show the Device Manager in the results and then click on it. Or just type devmgmt.msc in the command prompt or PowerShell.
device manager 1
If the Device Manager is already opened, in the moment you activate the "dfu mode" on the board, Device Manager will refresh to show the new usb device. Leave the Device manager open, we will need it a lot the first time to setup the thing.
device manager 2
We can see a new "Unknown device" when the Nano is in "DFU mode". That is not good enough. We need a driver.
First we will install the original driver from Sipeed. Open the page
http://dl.sipeed.com/LONGAN/Nano/Tools
and click on GD32_MCU_Dfu_Tool_V3.8.1.5784_1.rar to download the 10MB drivers. Don't miss the captcha or you are a robot ;-)
Unzip the folders:GD32 MCU Dfu Drivers_v1.0.1.2316
Right click on GD32 MCU Dfu Drivers_v1.0.1.2316\x64\GD32 MCU Dfu Drivers.exe and run as administrator.
driver_install_1
Click on Install and after successful installation click Cancel to close the window. Strange choice of words "Cancel", it should be "Close". Also in their online instructions is really visible that the main effort was in Chinese and not in the English language. Some translations are pretty bad.
Now in Device Manager at the bottom in the section "Universal Serial Bus controllers" we see the new driver.
device manager 3
This would be enough if we wanted to use the application from Sipeed: GD32 MCU Dfu Tool_v3.8.1.5784\GD32 MCU Dfu Tool.exe. But we don't want to do that. It is a windows GUI application, and we want to use a CLI application that can be a part of our workflow for building and downloading to the Longan Nano.
Interesting: the word "download" is used to send the firmware from the computer to the board and the word "upload" is used to send the firmware from the board to the computer. For me it sounds confusing, but this is the professional lingo!

dfu-util and Zadig

We want to use the CLI application dfu-utils.
There are a few problems there and we need to find some workarounds, so bear with me and be extra attentive.

The best use of dfu-util is from Linux, but as I said earlier we have no luck, because WSL2 does not use native USB.
There exists also the release dfu-util for Windows 0.9, but it has a bug and does not work with the GD32 driver.
I have you covered. Here is the workaround:

We need a special type of driver called WinUSB. We will use the application Zadig to replace our GD32 driver with the WinUSB driver. Open the page https://zadig.akeo.ie/ and click on Zadig 2.5 (4.9 MB) to download it.
Put your Longan Nona in "dfu mode". You know: BOOT0 and RESET buttons.
Double click on zadig-2.5.exe to run it. You will be asked Do you want to allow this app to make changes to your device? and choose Yes. It is a driver, it must change something.
From the menu choose Options - List All Devices.
zadig_1
When you open the DropDown there is bunch of existing usb drivers.
zadig_2
Interestingly, there is one driver without a name. I don't know why, but this is our GD32 driver. Click on it.
I want to give this driver a name. Click on the checkbox Edit,
zadig_3
write the driver name "WinUSB Longan Nano"
zadig_4
and click again on the Edit checkbox.
zadig_5
Now the driver has a name. I hope.
And now the magic part. Click on Replace Driver.
zadig_6
Say Yes.
zadig_8
Be patient.
zadig_9
Done! Close it.

Open Device Manager and put the Nano in "dfu mode" again. The new situation has a new "Universal Serial Bus devices", but sadly it is called Unknown device.
device manager 4
Double click on it and choose the tab Details and you will see that it is really our new driver "WinUSB Longan Nano".
device manager 5

The dfu-util for Windows you can download on the internet is version 0.9. Sadly it has a bug and it does not work for GD32V. But I have a workaround. The people from PlatformIO have built the version 0.10 for Windows, but it is not available on the internet to download. But we get it when we install PlatformIO on VSCode on Windows. I did that. I found the tool-dfuutil\bin folder in c:\Users\Luciano\.platformio\packages\tool-dfuutil\bin.
Here you can download the bin folder:
https://github.com/bestia-dev/longan_nano_rust_wsl2_platformio_setup/raw/main/tool-dfuutil/bin.zip

Now we can empty the tool-dfuutil/bin folder on WSL2, because it will never work in Linux in WSL2.
If you use a windows tool (I use Total Commander) the path is:
\\wsl$\Debian\home\luciano\.platformio\packages\tool-dfuutil\bin.
If you use a Linux tool the path is: ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin.

tool-dfuutil_1.png
Just delete all 4 files. We will not need them, never.

Now copy the content of the zip file to that folder. It sounds strange to have Windows exe files inside a linux folder, but trust me. It will work on WSL2 because of a magic collaboration between Windows and WSL2.
tool-dfuutil_2.png
The Linux PlatformIO cannot directly call the windows exe files because they have the extension .exe.
But we can create symlinks, so it will look to PlatformIO as nothing has changed. Run this in Linux bash:

ln -s ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-util.exe ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-util
ln -s ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-suffix.exe ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-suffix
ln -s ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-prefix.exe ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-prefix

make it executable

chmod +x ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-util
chmod +x ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-suffix
chmod +x ~/.platformio/packages/tool-dfuutil/bin/dfu-prefix

Et voilà ! There we are !

Original Blinky example in C

Let's try our environment now.
Open VSCode. Normally it opens in Windows Mode. You can tell by the green box in the left bottom corner. This is how it looks for Windows mode:
vscode_1.png
and this is how it looks in WSL-Debian mode:
vscode_2.png
If you click on this green box it opens some new commands:
vscode_3.png
Click on New WSL Window and now your VSCode is in WSL-Debian mode.
Click on the icon for PlatformIO and then Open and then Project Examples.
vscode_4.png
Select an example
vscode_5.png
Choose Arduino blink
vscode_6.png
Click Import
vscode_7.png
The folder of the imported projects shows:
vscode_8.png
Now we can open this project folder:
vscode_9.png
Observe that we are working in the Linux file system :
blink_1.png
If it asks you to trust the author, answer Yes.
This is our project now:
blink_2.png
We have to make some changes to the platformio.ini to look like this:

; https://docs.platformio.org/page/projectconf.html

[env:sipeed-longan-nano]
platform = gd32v
framework = arduino
board = sipeed-longan-nano
monitor_speed = 115200
upload_protocol = dfu

Time to build! On the bottom status bar find and click on this (PlatformIO: Build):
blink_3.png
Build successful:
blink_4.png
Time to download our app to the board. Put your Nano in "dfu mode" (remember BOOT0 and RESET buttons). In the bottom status bar find and click on this (PlatformIO: Upload):
blink_5.png
Download successful:
blink_6.png
Observe your Longan Nano how the LED blinks red.
It's alive !

PIO + rust project

We will use a cargo plugin to create a new project that has all the files and folder structure to start a project with PIO and rust. This plugin is called cargo-pio.
Run in Debian:
$ cargo install cargo-pio
We will need also a target for the Risc-V processor (in Debian):
$ rustup target add riscv32imac-unknown-none-elf
PlatformIO needs Python 3. Debian comes preinstalled with it. Upgrade to the latest version in Debian packages (Debian is always a little behind):

sudo apt update
sudo apt -y upgrade
python3 -V

The new project will be next to our other rust projects:
$ cd ~/rustprojects/
The magic incantation will create a scaffold for our first project blinky_blue:
$ cargo pio new -b sipeed-longan-nano -p gd32v blinky_blue
pio_3.png

Open VSCode in Windows, change it to WSL-Debian mode (left bottom green box), click on New WSL Window, click Open Folder and find
~/rustprojects/blinky_blue/
or equivalent, but with your username
/home/luciano/rustprojects/blinky_blue/
and click OK.

We need to change the [env] section of platform.ini:

[env]
extra_scripts = pre:platformio.git.py, pre:platformio.patch.py, platformio.cargo.py
board = sipeed-longan-nano
platform = gd32v
framework = gd32vf103-sdk
rust_lib = blinky_blue
rust_target = riscv32imac-unknown-none-elf
monitor_speed = 115200
upload_protocol = dfu

In Cargo.toml we will add some [dependencies]:

[dependencies]
riscv-rt = "0.8.0"
longan-nano = "0.2.0"

and most important we have to change the edition in [lib] section from 2015 to 2018 else you get the cryptic error
error[E0433]: failed to resolve: maybe a missing crate longan_nano?:

[lib]
...
edition = "2018"
...

In .gitignore we add the target/ folder next to the .pio:

.pio/
target/

Finally we come to coding in rust.
In src/lib.rs we remove the ESP-IDF and Arduino sections. The remaining All others section should look like this:

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// All others                                         //
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

use longan_nano::hal::{pac, prelude::*};
use longan_nano::led::{Led, rgb};

#[no_mangle]
extern "C" fn main() -> i32 {
    let dp = pac::Peripherals::take().unwrap();
    let mut rcu = dp.RCU.configure().sysclk(108.mhz()).freeze();

    let gpioa = dp.GPIOA.split(&mut rcu);
    let gpioc = dp.GPIOC.split(&mut rcu);

     let (mut red, mut green, mut blue) = rgb(gpioc.pc13, gpioa.pa1, gpioa.pa2);
     let leds: [&mut dyn Led; 3] = [&mut red, &mut green, &mut blue];

    leds[0].off();
    leds[1].off();
    leds[2].off();

    let mut i = 0;
    let mut on_off = false;
    loop {
        if i > 5_000_000 {
            i = 0;
            if on_off==false{
                leds[2].off();
                on_off=true;                
            }else{
                leds[2].on();
                on_off=false;
            }
        } else{
            i += 1;
        }
    }
    0
}

Good.
Now we can click on PlatformIO: Build button in the status bar.
build_1.png
And we have a successful build.

Put the Longan Nano in DFU mode (BOOT0 and RESET mini-buttons) and click on PlatformIO: Upload button on the statusbar.
build_2.png
It works! The Nano has a blinking blue LED !
Congratulations ! You were very patient if you come to this line. The setup of the environment is not super smooth, but once you got it, it's done. You don't have to repeat it.
And now I leave you to your fantasy, so you can code some great rust programs for Longan Nano.

git and GitHub

Just to finish in beauty: we will create a remote repository in Github and push our project.
I tried the GitHub CLI, but it looks awful. I will not use it.
I think VSCode already installs git, so you don't have to worry about it.
You need to have already a GitHub account and your SSH key for GitHub prepared and added to GitHub.
In the VSCode terminal (Ctrl+j) I use ssh-agent to have the GitHub authorization in the background exclusively for this terminal session:
$ /usr/bin/ssh-agent
I add my github SSH key to the agent:
$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/lucianobestia_mac
I type my passphrase to authenticate that this is really me.

Open in your browser https://github.com, login and there will be a big green New button. Click on it:

The remote repository is created and instructions are shown:

github_1

Click on the button to copy the commands. Open the Debian bash terminal inside VSCode (Ctrl+j) and paste the commands.
Now that the git and GitHub repositories are set, you can use VSCode icons (1) to commit (2+3) and push (4) to remote:
git_vscode_1.png

You can find my repository here: https://github.com/bestia-dev/blinky_blue
You can clone it locally like this:

cd ~/rustprojects
git clone git@github.com:bestia-dev/blinky_blue.git